Public-key cryptography is a collection of algorithms-based cryptographic procedures that are used to jumble secret data and make it look randomized.
Public-key cryptography entails two keys: a private key and a public key. These keys contain a piece of information that is used to scramble data and make it appear random. Only with the correct key can the messages be unencrypted and decrypted.
For instance, suppose we take a plaintext message, "Cool," and encrypt it with a key, say "323vjhqwhdj." Our message "Cool" has been encrypted with this key, and it now reads "X5xJCSycg14=", which appears to be random garbage data. However, we can recover "Cool" by decrypting it with the same key.
To prevent unauthorized access to data, the protocol employs a pair of keys that encrypt and decrypt it. The certification authorities provide the network's users with a public and a private key. If other users want to encrypt data, they obtain the public key of the intended recipient from a public directory. This key is used to encrypt and send the message to the recipient. Later on, it is decrypted by the recipient using a private key to which no one else has access.
The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) algorithm is a public key cryptography system that is widely used when sending secure, sensitive information over an insecure network, such as the internet. The RSA algorithm is helpful because it allows both public and private keys to encrypt messages while maintaining their authenticity and integrity. Other cryptosystems include Diffie-Hellman, DSS, and Elliptic Curve.
The following are key benefits:
The following are disadvantages:
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