Validiums And Optimiums Do Not Belong To Layer 2, L2Beat States
- Validiums and Optimiums do not publish data on Layer 1, introducing trust assumptions.
- If necessary data for state reconstruction is not provided, funds are put at risk.
- L2Beat includes Validiums and Optimiums for historical reasons and to provide a comprehensive overview of the space.
Validiums and Optimiums are not strictly L2 solutions as they don’t publish data on L1, introducing trust assumptions. Funds are at risk if data is not provided.
L2Beat’s latest documentation highlights an important distinction regarding Validiums and Optimiums. While these systems are often associated with Layer 2 (L2) solutions, they do not strictly adhere to the traditional L2 framework.
Understanding the Distinction: Validiums and Optimiums
This is because Validiums and Optimiums do not publish data on Layer 1 (L1), which introduces additional trust assumptions. Consequently, if the operator of an off-chain decentralized application (DA) solution fails to provide the necessary data for reconstructing the state, funds are put at risk.
Validiums, which include Immutable X, and Optimiums, which include Arbitrum Nova, rely on external data publication and either validity proofs or fraud proofs, respectively. Although they are not classified as L2s, Validiums and Optimiums are included in L2Beat’s documentation for historical reasons and to provide a comprehensive overview of the space.
Trust-Minimized L2 Categories: zkRollups, Optimistic Rollups, State Channels, Plasma
In terms of trust-minimized L2s, L2Beat recognizes several categories. zkRollups leverage data publication on L1 (Ethereum) to ensure data availability and consensus guarantees, using validity proofs for state roots correctness. Optimistic Rollups also publish data on L1 and rely on fraud proofs for state roots correctness.
State channels do not publish data on-chain but require users to retain their data for proper exiting. Plasma, similar to state channels, does not publish data on-chain and utilizes fraud proofs for dispute resolution. However, Plasma does not support general computation.
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